What Are The Different Types Of Diabetes?
Today there are two main ways of classifying diabetes. The first one, corresponding to the World Health Organization, only recognizes three types of diabetes: type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes. The second classification was established by the ADA (American Diabetes Association) in 1997 and classifies diabetes mellitus into four different types: type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes, and additional types of diabetes mellitus.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus, or autoimmune diabetes, was previously known as insulin dependent or juvenile diabetes. It is mostly present in younger people, although it can appear at any time of life. It is characterized by no insulin production due to the autoimmune destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas islets by T.8 cells. It is usually diagnosed when the individual is around 30 years old and it affects nearly five million people around the world, with the highest percentage of them in North America and in Western Europe. The different genetic predispositions in a region’s general population can affect the percentage of people afflicted by this kind of diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex disease that is characterized by the relationship between insulin production and its use by the glucose tissues. This is also known as insulin resistance, and usually means that the insulin receptors in cells that are in charge of letting glucose into the cell are damaged. It is often developed in adulthood and is very frequently associated with obesity. It was formerly known as adult-onset diabetes or obesity-related diabetes. Several drugs and other causes can also cause this kind of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is frequently associated with prolonged intake of corticoids, frequently associated with untreated hemochromatosis. Resistance to insulin or type 2 diabetes accounts for about 80 to 90 percent of all cases of diabetes.
Gestational diabetes, also known as pregnancy diabetes, is present in about 1 to 14 percent of patients and almost always manifests itself between weeks 24 and 28 of pregnancy. Sometimes it can persist after the pregnancy is ended. It can contribute to a rise in health problems (like elevated blood pressure, vaginal and bladder infections and premature labor) and severe damage to the baby (death in the fetus or exaggerated growth in the fetus due to it being exposed to a higher quantity of glucose than usual.) Pregnancy is a considerable metabolic load on the mother’s body, since the baby is an additional load on the mother’s organs, energy supply, oxygen and waste management. For this reason, pregnant women can present a deficiency of the hormone that allows cells to process insulin which results in gestational diabetes.
There are other kinds of diabetes that are relatively rarer. They account for about five percent of all cases of diabetes. These are usually referred to as various types of type 3 diabetes. Type 3A is a genetic defect in the insulin producing cells in the pancreatic islets. Type 3B diabetes is insulin resistance caused by genetic factors. Type 3C diabetes is caused by various pancreatic illnesses. Type 3D diabetes is related to hormonal problems and deficiencies. Type 3E diabetes is caused by different drugs or chemical substances.
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